Finding Financial Freedom

January 30, 2018

Debt Management

Comments Off on Finding Financial Freedom


In a 2015 economic study, researchers found that eight out of ten American are in astronomical amounts of debt. Today, statistics showed that these numbers have only varied slightly, if at all, as the average American household is over eight-thousand dollars in debt. Financial debt is a cancer that is plaguing every part of our country from college students working to pay of tens of thousands of dollars worth of student loans, to hard-working businessman working a dreary nine-to-five just to pay off the house mortgage and put gas in the cars.

The reason for this ridiculous amount of nation-wide debt is simple: we have no idea how to save and are really good at spending. We come by it honestly – I mean, have you heard how much debt that our government is in currently? Something to the tune of nineteen trillion dollars. Based on that statistic, I would say that it is no wonder Americans are having such heavy financial struggles! Perhaps the worst part about this whole collaborative debt-mess is that the majority of Americans not only expect to accrue debt, but they’ve settled with that reality as fact, chosen to accept it as a part of life, and are making no conscious efforts to avoid it!

The good news, however, is that living with financial debt is not a requirement, nor should it be something to settle with. There are several steps that you can take today to begin paying off your debt and walking in financial freedom. Dave Ramsey, American businessman, author, and motivational speaker who specializes in finance, created something called the “debt snowball” to teach Americans how to get rid of their debt entirely. This method has been proven to increase the user’s internal motivation to get out of debt fully.

On first impression, this concept of the “debt snowball” may sound intimidating – after all, you don’t want your debt to snowball out of control… it’s already out of control! This method, contrary to its intimidating title, is built to keep you motivated as you pay off your debt with one simple trick: you must pay off the smallest debt first and work your way up to the largest. More information about this concept can be found on Dave’s website, but to put it simply, the steps to financial freedom are creating and maintaining a strict personal budget, putting money towards paying off those debts every single month, and starting with the smallest one first.

There is no such thing as a manageable amount of debt. If you are making the choice to settle with a certain amount of debt and live with the consequences, you are choosing to live in financial bondage for the rest of your life. When you make that choice, everything you do is dictated by someone else because, until they get their money, you belong to them. However, when you choose to work hard to pay off the debts that you owe, the joy that you will experience in the end will be so sweet as you put the life of debt behind you and walk in financial freedom!

Effective Cost Management and Optimal Pricing Strategies


How do firms choose their pricing strategies? Do higher prices automatically result in higher profits? How do firms that opt for premium pricing compare to firms that opt for volume? Do price increases always result in higher total revenues? These strategic policy questions relate to the optimal price points of a business enterprise-the appropriate mix of value propositions that maximizes net income and thus the return on investment and shareholders’ wealth while minimizing the cost of operations, simultaneously.

There are divergent pricing objectives and many factors influence pricing strategies. For those familiar with the relevant academic literature the critical factors are well known and supported by contemporary research. The primary goals of effective pricing strategies and core elements of effective pricing strategies are equally well established. However, some industry watchers and practitioners continue to identify profit maximization as the primary goal of business enterprises. As we have advised in previous review and guidance, this focus on profit maximization is a bit misguided.

While profit maximization is a legitimate strategic business goal, for several reasons the primary goal of a business is survival at least in the short run. There is gathering empirical evidence suggesting that when businesses overlook this reality and make profit maximization their primary and dominant goal, they tend to engage in conduct and pursue strategies that threaten their very existence. Contemporary case studies are replete with modern examples such as AIG, Bear Stearns, Enron, Global Crossing, Lehman Brothers, Refco, Washington Mutual, and WorldCom, etc. In this review, we highlight some basic economic theory and best industry practices of effective pricing strategies. This article provides general guidelines for establishing optimal pricing strategies and effective cost minimization strategies. For specific pricing and cost management strategies please consult competent professionals.

A close review of relevant extant academic literature indicates that most firms seek to maximize net income (difference between total revenues and total costs) based on several factors such as the stage of the industry life cycle, product life cycle, and market structure. Indeed, as we have already established, the optimal value proposition for each firm differs markedly based on overall industry dynamic, market structure-degree of competition, height of entry/exit barriers, market contestability, and its market competitive position. Additionally, as with most market performance indicators, firm-specific profitability index and revenue growth rate are insightful only in reference to the industry expected value (average) and generally accepted industry benchmarks and best practices.

In practice, firms use pricing objectives and the price elasticity of demand for products and services to set effective pricing policies. Basic economic principles suggest that price elasticity of demand indicates the sensitivity of customers to changes in pricing, which in turn affects sales volumes, total revenues and profits. Economic principles suggest that the price elasticity is low for essential goods because people have to buy them even at higher prices. On the other hand, the price elasticity is high for non-essential and luxury goods because consumers may not buy them at higher prices, ceteris paribus.

Optimal Pricing Strategies

Optimal pricing points maximize profits by charging exactly what the market will bear. Managers may adjust their pricing strategies depending on changes in the competitive environment and in consumer demand. Most successful world-class firms rely on effective environmental scanning, environmental analysis and market analytics to make informed decisions that create and sustain competitive advantage in the global marketplace. In practice, the core elements of optimal pricing strategy include the value of the product to prospective customers, the price charged by key competitors, and the costs incurred by the firm from new product idea generation to commercialization.

Further, optimal pricing is derivative of effective price discrimination which means that firms segment their market into distinct customer groups and charge each group exactly what it is willing to pay. The optimal price and volume refer to the selling price and volume at which firms maximize profits. While some small-businesses often may not know exactly what consumers are willing to pay because of limited market analytics, inept marketing information systems and ineffectual environmental scanning, most firms use historical cost data, price points, and sales data to establish market trends. In practice, most small businesses make reliable assumptions and useful estimates based on historical sales patterns and set product mix and pricing strategy accordingly.

Managerial economic principles suggest that long-term success and profitability depend on optimal pricing, or producing an output to the point where the additional revenue of an extra unit of output equals the additional cost of producing that unit: (MR=MC); in other words, producing where marginal revenue equals marginal cost. In practice, we can derive marginal revenue from the firm’s demand. The mathematical derivation is given by: MR = P(1+(1/Ed)) =MC. However, an easier method of deriving marginal revenue is to use the price elasticity of demand. Since maximizing profit requires marginal revenue equals marginal cost, we can derive optimal price from the relationship between marginal revenue and the price elasticity of demand. Consequently, the optimal price is P = MR = MC(Ed/(Ed+1)). As we know, based on law of demand price elasticity is a negative. Therefore, optimal price, P = (MC*Ed)/(Ed-1).

Additionally, there is a confluence of empirical evidence in the extant academic literature suggesting that optimal pricing is possible only when there is a difference in price elasticity for different consumer groups. For example, a store chain may price the same item higher in a wealthy neighborhood, where consumers may be less sensitive to price, and lower in a working-class neighborhood, where consumers may be more sensitive to prices. The factors that affect price elasticity include whether the product is a necessity or luxury, the availability of substitute products and the proportion of disposable income required to buy certain product. The price elasticity will be high if consumers can buy alternative products or if they have to spend too much of their discretionary income.

Some Operational Guidance

Basic economic principles are supported by gathering empirical evidence suggesting that higher prices do not guarantee profit and higher total revenues do not guarantee profit. In practice, most world-class firms know that the critical variable is effective cost management. The objective functions are revenue enhancement and cost minimization. Indeed, competitive advantage in the global marketplace derives from strategic options based on EQIC: Efficiency, quality, innovation and customer responsiveness. Further, because profit is the different between total revenues and total costs, there are several ways firms with market power maximize the profit producing capacity of their enterprise. Firms can increase profit by increasing total revenues while reducing total costs; and they can increase profit by increasing total revenues while keeping total costs from rising; or they can increase profit by increasing total revenues more than they increase total costs.

Additionally, revenue enhancement can be quite expensive and often, the relationship between profitability and revenue growth is quadratic which implies that revenue growth rate may be functional and profit-enhancing or dysfunctional and profit-reducing. For most successful firms, the strategic objective is to locate the optimal revenue growth rate of the enterprise where profit is maximized, ceteris paribus. Two strategic value propositions and pricing options based on Du Pont ROI model are available to most firms: Premium pricing (emphasizing high mark-ups, high profit margins and profitability); and High turn-over rate (emphasizing high productivity and effective use of available assets). There is significant empirical evidence suggesting firms that opt for scale and volume tends to outperform those that opt for segment and premium, all things being equal.

Managerial economic principles suggest that price effects depend on the size of income effect and substitution effect. Further, the effect of price changes on total revenues depends on price elasticity of demand. When products are price elastic, price increases will reduce total revenues while price reductions will decrease total revenues when products are price inelastic. The opposite is equally true. Therefore, firms seeking revenue enhancement should lower prices if products are price elastic and increase prices if products are price inelastic, all things being equal.

Moreover, the target is optimal scale of operation-the Minimum Efficiency Scale (MES) where firms minimize their long-run average cost via economies of scale. As we have already established, scale economies derive from economies of scope, division of labor, specialization, experience curve, and learning effects. A careful analysis of the extant academic literature suggests that the optimal price path should be largely based on the sales growth pattern. However, in the real world we rarely find new products that have such pricing pattern. Indeed, we observe either a monotonically declining pricing pattern or an increase-decrease pricing pattern that does not seem close to the actual historical sales path.

Contemporary research on optimal pricing for the most part contend that the dominant firms and most firms with market power will maximize their present value by either charging the short-run profit maximizing price and allowing their selective demand-market share to decline or by setting price at the limit price and precluding all new entry. And because price sends multiple signals to diverse stakeholders including regulators, current and potential competitors, firms that opt for short-run profit maximization would have to ignore continually the reality of induced potential and new entrants and close scrutiny by diligent industry regulators.

Conversely, firms charging the limit price have to be convinced that their prevailing market share is optimal, that is P = (MC*Ed)/(Ed-1). While there is only limited analytic justification for this strategic dichotomy, professional intuition suggests that the optimal strategy requires careful balancing between current profits and future market share. Managerial economic principles strongly suggest that the rate of entry of rival producers into a specific market is a function of current product price. There is strong empirical evidence indicating that the variation in rate of firms entering or exiting an industry is positively correlated with the level of industry profits. Therefore, a dominant firm with high current product price and profit levels may be sacrificing some future profits through gradual erosion of its selective demand-market share.

In sum, optimal pricing strategy depends on effective cost management, market dynamism, and price elasticity of demand. Regardless of market structure-degree of competition, the output level where MR = MC is always optimal, whether the firm is earning an economic profit, breaking even, or operating at a loss. Firms seeking to minimize costs should operate at the output level where P = MR = MC = minimum ATC -the price is equal to marginal revenue, and the marginal cost; and the minimum of average total cost. This is a very useful economic principle because when a firm is earning profits-it maximizes profit where MR = MC and when a firm is incurring losses, it minimizes loss where MR = MC and the minimum of the ATC, ceteris paribus.

Managing Small Business Taxes for Startups With High Profits

January 30, 2018

Budgeting

Comments Off on Managing Small Business Taxes for Startups With High Profits


When your profits are high as a small business, you might feel some pride and a boost in confidence. You are doing what you want to do and you are doing it well. The only issue here is that things might get a bit more complicated. Taxes for a small business with high profits might seem unmanageable, especially if you do not know how to deal with this type of situation. Taxes for small business situations like this should go to the professionals. A small business consultant, a bookkeeper, can handle this far more effectively than you might be able to. This means better results and fewer risks moving forward.

Bookkeeping for small business taxes and profits is the smart choice when you are making a lot of money. When your profits are high for a business of your size, you should have a bookkeeper helping you. The higher the profits are, the more complicated this can get. It is sometimes more complicated than you can manage. If you try to take it on yourself, you might make mistakes or you might forget something. Any issues with your taxes could hurt your business in the end. A bookkeeper is capable of managing this with lowered risks overall.

On top of better quality results, you also have a specialist handling something that requires a large amount of time and work. Taxes for small business startups are not simple, especially when you have found a lot of success. When you have an entire business to manage and a lot of people going to you, you do not want to spend what little time you have to yourself managing the taxes. Bookkeeping for small business taxes will handle this work so that you can focus on the rest of the business. You will get the work you expect without having to put in any of the time or an effort yourself.

5 Benefits of Plastic Bottles

January 30, 2018

Business

Comments Off on 5 Benefits of Plastic Bottles


Plastic bottles are the preferred material for a wide range of packaging materials, such as detergent, beverages, and many more. A useful type of plastic is polyethylene terephthalate because it is highly flexible for greater ease in production, as well as its toughness and energy-saving qualities. Here are a few of the most appealing benefits of plastic bottles:

Safe and Rugged

Plastic bottles are often favored over the glass containers because they are more resilient to damage. In the event of dropping on the floor, they are less likely to smash or shatter into hundreds of little pieces, which make the packaging a lot safer to handle. The hard-wearing build helps to lower the risk of the bottle bursting or leaking, which is especially useful when items are being shipped or transported in cartons. Also, the most popular plastics used are naturally resistant to chemicals.

Unique shapes

The plastic material is easily molded into a preferred shape or size. This has the benefit of improving its all-round use and appearance. For instance, the bottles can be custom designed with pouring lips, measurement marks or integral handles to match the specific needs. The plastic material is easy to color at the time of the manufacturing process with the option to create the vibrant color, plain black and white or opaque or translucent. The ability to customize the look makes it easier to build a brand that is quick to identify by sight. Also, because the coloring agent is mixed into the plastic at the point of manufacturing, there is no risk of the color washing off or running.

Low cost

Plastic is likely to be the most cost-effective material to use as a storage material compared to other options, such as wood, metal and glass. It is generally manufactured in very high quantities which help to bring the overall cost down.

Energy savings

The lightweight construction of the plastic bottles makes them a lot easier to ship and gives useful savings in costs and energy. Also, the melting point of plastic is relatively low compared to other materials like glass which means the manufacturing process relies on less energy.

Recyclable material

Most plastic bottles like those in polyethylene terephthalate are easily recycled after its original use and life-cycle is complete. Plastic from bottles can be recycled and used for a variety of purposes, including tote bags, pillow stuffing and carpet fibers. Recycled plastic can also feature in nonfood containers and beverage bottles.

Online Businesses for Stay at Home Moms


Online businesses for stay at home moms are becoming more popular every day. The need to be at home and make money tears the hearts of many women as they try to decide what they should do or not do. If you are a mother, and you are reading this article, you can be hopeful! There are some great options of how you can make money online easily, and with a little
practice.

Most Online Businesses are Affordable to Start

One misconception about online businesses for stay at home moms is that they are expensive to market. They really aren’t, especially when you are considering how to get one started, how to run it and maintain it. You should also keep in mind that when you compare the cost of a brick and mortar business to an online business, the level of expense is dramatically lower, hands down.

In fact, let me give you my first example which would be on affiliate marketing. Affiliate marketing has no cost involved to get signed up, which is great. In some cases, depending on the retailer or the product you wish to promote, you may or may not have to pay a fee to buy a special website or banner ad.

Amazon offers many different ways to do this, and is a bit more involved; however, generally speaking most retailers don’t require this. It’s free to sign up, they give you access to HTML code, and you can copy and paste that into your blog without too much trouble.

Businesses on the Internet are Easy to Work Around

You may or may not already realize this, but online businesses for stay at home moms are easy to work around. This is because with online marketing, you can access it or change anything you wish at any time of the day.

Being a stay at home mom is demanding, so you have to keep up with it and your kids. However, it doesn’t have to be all that hard if you can figure out a routine of some sort. During naptimes is a great time to get things done if possible and we all know that you still have to keep the place clean too, which isn’t easy!

So, with an online business, it’s easy for stay at home moms to do what they need to do, and have the ability to earn an income as well.

An Online Business Can be Super Profitable

If you have never heard the story of Michelle Pescosolido, then this will do your heart good. Michelle was a stay at home mom who was working a side business in network marketing and wasn’t making a lot when she first started.

However, once she learned the power of marketing online, Michelle grew her business into a six figure income within 6 months. With an additional 6 months of trial and error, she realized it would stick and brought her husband home from his job in corporate America.

So, no matter what others tell you, you can see the benefit of an online business! If you are a mom who wants to stay at home to have more time with your children, but still need to have an income, then having an online business can make that possible. It provides the potential for making money and having the flexibility that is beneficial to family life.

Tips on Becoming a Mobile Hairdresser


Fed up of working at a large and busy salon? Feel like being your own boss for a change? Becoming a mobile hairdresser is no easy feet but if you have the confidence and resources to start your own business, do it. It can be very rewarding!

Getting the Word Out

Think about your target audience and the best ways to approach them. People seeking mobile hairdressers could be stay-at-home mums, the elderly, people with disabilities, brides and bridesmaids, and others for whom it is important to find a hairdresser who can come to their home or venue.

Start spreading the word through friends and acquaintances. It could be worth offering special deals to your first ten clients or so. Always make sure to deliver good service as you can’t risk damaging your reputation if your mood is a bit off.

If you’re familiar with various social networks such as Facebook and Twitter, set up accounts for your business and use trending hashtags to tap into local audiences. It’s also worth looking into joining forums and directories. For example, there are many of these for mums and the disabled.

Keeping Yourself Organised

Keeping yourself organised is vital to business success. In order for you to be able to focus on hairdressing, think about employing an accountant or bookkeeper to take care of your finances and tax. It’s worth consulting a professional before launching your business.

Make sure you keep an appointment diary, and always have it on you so you don’t risk double booking clients.

Keep your equipment in check, always making sure you have the necessary items for your next appointment, depending on the service you’ll be delivering: cutting, dyeing, blow drying or the like.

It’s also worth keeping some of your diplomas or certificates on hand, especially if visiting new clients. They may wish to see proof that you’re qualified for the job.

Gaining New Skills

To stay ahead of the competition and show you really care about your job, attend the occasional course to gain some new skills and knowledge. Heard of a new technique for creating highlights? Look out for courses being held in your area.

You could also attend conferences and seminars further afield to gain valuable contacts and experience.

If you are using social media for advertising, be sure to mention these courses. You should also drop them into conversation when chatting to your clients.

Renewing Your Equipment

Don’t let your hair salon equipment get outdated. Old tools won’t leave a good impression on your clients so be sure to regularly inspect all your equipment to spot any signs of ageing.

For example, scissors can go rusty and electricals can simply start looking outdated considering the speed at which the industry releases new products.

8 Tips To Prevent Pipes From Freezing

January 30, 2018

Industrial Mechanical

Comments Off on 8 Tips To Prevent Pipes From Freezing


Do you have any idea as to what the Arctic Vortex is? Actually, this thing is responsible for bringing a lot of cold. In winter, if you have a frozen pipe problem, you may want to follow the tips given below to make sure that your pipes don’t freeze.

Be Prepared

It matters to get ready ahead of time. What you need to do is cut a few blocks of foam to seal the base vents. Also make sure you know the location of the water shutoff. This will help you deal with the situation in case you find a broken pipe. You may also want to have a temporary patch kit in order to seal the burst pipes. You can then wait for the right season to get it repaired. You should do you research to find out the best plumber to fix the pipes that have already been frozen.

Increase the thermostat

If your house is an old one and built over a non-insulated crawl space, you may want to increase the thermostat to raise the air temperature. This will keep all of the pipes from freezing.

Install Fiberglass

You should get some insulation of unfaced fiberglass. Moreover, you should get some disposable coveralls, work gloves, a dust mask and some knife blades. Once you have worn the gloves, you should figure out your insulation needs.

Use Foam Board

Do you want to protect a wide area? If so, you can use a barrier of foam board to retain the heat. You can also do with an unfaced or faced foam board if you want a temporary fix. You can use a sharpie or a pencil to mark the surface.

Install a Heating Cable

You should consider installing a heating cable. Before you do this, make sure you read the instruction manual. Some tapes run along the pipe and some are wrapped around it. At times, the cable needs to be cut so you need to opt for a kit to get it into the desired shape.

Use A Space Heater

You can put an electric heater close to the pipes to keep the cold away. Keep in mind that the purpose is not to keep the space comfortable. Instead, the goal is to keep the water in the pipes from freezing.

Turn The Water off

Another option is to turn the water off by closing the main valve, especially if you are not going to stay in the house. In case the pipes freeze, the spillage will be limited to the amount of water in the pipe.

Open Cabinet Doors

The pipes may be running to your exterior wall or the kitchen sink, and the pipes may be vulnerable since the wall is not usually insulated. To let the heat come in, you may want to open the doors of the cabinet along the wall. For extra protection, you can put the heater near the cabinets.

So, if you have been looking to keep your pipes from freezing in winter, we suggest that you follow the tips given in this guide. Hope this will help.

Packaged Water Bottle Testing – 3 Important Tests for Every Manufacturer


With the rising demand for packaged drinking water, the beverage companies are investing a big share in packing and promoting mineral-rich water. But there is a considerable difference in the prices. The reason behind this is quality of packing that is used for packing the water. A good quality bottle has undergone different types of testing and is considered as user-friendly and safe as primary packing.

By not going into the molecular structure or chemical properties, physical properties are really a matter of concern for most of the manufacturers. Deformed bottles, broken bottles, leaked caps, etc. may lead to spoilage of the whole lot and may face straightway rejection from QC in-charge or from the retailer. To cut down the rejection cost and failure cost, it is important to perform the test before starting the mass production of the bottles.

Top Load Testing – During transportation or in warehouses, the bottles are stacked over each other. It is a very common technique of utilising the space efficiently. Due to stacking, bottles are being subjected to a constant compressive load. This may result in buckling of the bottle from different points, like from the neck or from the bottom. To avoid such deformities, manufacturers must perform top-load testing by applying a compressive load on the bottle sample. If manufacturers understand the behaviour of their bottles, they can issue the guidelines to the carrier not to subject the load exceeding the defined limit. In case of failure to follow the guidelines, claims can be slapped on the carrier company.

Torque Testing – Torque is the rotational force applied to the cap to open it. To make bottles user-friendly, it is important to have right torque requirements. The user of a packaged water bottle could be a 10 years old child or a 65 years old lady. So, there is a huge variation in strength that can be applied. Having the appropriate torque not only makes the bottle user-friendly but also assures the leak resistance.

Bottle Drop Testing – It is a very simple test but tells a lot about the crack resistance or dent resistance properties of the bottles. When PET bottle falls from a height accidentally or due to manhandling, how strong it is to bear the impact of free falling? In this test, the bottle is made to drop from a height and visual analysis is done to see any deformity developed. Drop testing instrument is a standardised instrument designed as per the testing standards issued by relative authorities.

For capturing a good market share it is very important to think from customer’s perspective. Failing to adhere quality standards result in short lived success. Thus, delivering a good user experience along with good quality should be the priority of manufacturers.

All About Salt Spray Testing

January 30, 2018

Industrial Mechanical

Comments Off on All About Salt Spray Testing


A salt spray test is also called corrosion testing and is performed on metal products. This test estimates the resistance of surface coating against the corrosion initiating conditions. In a neutral salt spray test, the specimen is exposed to the saline fog for a specific duration and when the test cycle is completed, the specimen is analysed visually. There are standards defined by relative authorities to perform the test step by step. ASTM B117 is followed that has defined all the conditions and precautions to be taken while performing this test.

Test Procedure

· To perform the test, first of all, a standardised salt spray chamber is required.

· To begin the test, place the sample in the chamber by rubbing off all the contaminants like dust or grease from the specimen surface.

· The angle of placement should be 20° and the should be kept away from the chamber walls. Close the canopy of the chamber and set the time period.

· The duration of the test can be in the multiple of 24, like, 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours and so on.

· Many machines are equipped with HMI panel or touch screen panel to allow the profile programming.

· Once the test is complete, the specimen is taken out and analysed visually.

· If the specimen does not show any traces of rust it passed the test, else it is failed.

Precautions to be Taken

· The temperature of the chamber should be approx. 37°C.

· The level of fog that is to be maintained is 5ml.

· During the test, the canopy should not be opened. It disturbs the test conditions that are maintained inside the chamber.

· It is very important that the test should run non-stop. Therefore, it is very necessary to have a water reservoir.

· The sample should not be placed very close to the walls, it may result in uneven exposure to fog.

Importance of Corrosion Testing

In metal industries, this test serves different purposes. Some industries try to evaluate the behaviour of their product in real working conditions, while some try to estimate the shelf life of their product. There is one interesting analysis and that is a determination of salt spray life. It can be defined as the number of hours a specimen can withstand without developing the corrosion. In many industries, it is used as the parameter to judge the regression in the production process. Over the time, due to wear and tear of the machine or with the age of the machine the production process starts to develop loopholes which might not get recognised unless tested. The quality of the coating starts to degrade unintentionally. This degradation can be determined by salt spray testing. If a coated product used to have a salt spray life of 96 hours but now it has started to fail at 84 hours, this means the coating process needs reconsideration.

It is an internal way of setting up quality standards. The manufacturer must consistently adhere to these standards to deliver high-quality products. Salty fog testing is considered an important parameter in the metal industry. It not only tests the sustainability of the coated surface but also determines the real-time behaviour of the product.

There is always a misconception among the manufacturers and they try to relate the salt spray life with real life. But this is not the aim of the test. Because in real life conditions, there is a periodic cycle of wet and dry events. However, in simulated tested conditions, there are constant wet conditions. Understanding the right aim of this test is very important so that right testing purpose can be served.

Insulation Covers And Connectors – Important Electrical Accessories


Brief on Insulation Covers
Insulation covers or blankets help maintain process temperature, protect machine components from environmental stress and give highest level of insulation thus ensuring long product life. They not only protect the product but also the personnel working on the machines. Insulation covers reduce undue stress on the machinery and offer increased energy efficiency. These blankets also aid in effective process control by keeping checks on process temperatures, flow of the material, levels of ingredients in the process, etc. Overall they help in making the process cost effective.

An insulation cover is either tight fit or removable. Even the tight fit covers are removable and replaceable. They ensure a complete covering and are highly long lasting. Customized insulation blankets can be designed by studying the facility, evaluating the process parameters and ensuring they increase the efficiency.

Brief on Screened Separable Connectors

Functional Parameters
Connectors are an electro mechanical device for joining and making the electrical terminations touch proof. They consist of a male component viz. Plugs and the female component viz. Jacks. The screened separable connectors are made of silicone EPDM rubber. They connect cables to switch gears, transformers and other equipment. These connectors are protected by touch proof outer screen making them fully insulated, submersible. The fully screened connection makes mating with both A and C type bushings possible. Their design is compact, finish is smooth, current capacity is high to the tune of 250A, 630A to 1250A and performance is effective. Their voltage ratings are 11KV, 15KV, 24KV, etc. Using these connectors both ends of the cable are terminated sometimes using identical connectors or at times terminated differently.

Installation
The screened separable connectors are easy, safe and quick to install due to their optimized design and selection of material. They fit into smallest of installation spaces and even when the clearances for operation is insufficient.

Characteristics
Connectors are a physical interface and they should be of a proper size, offer good resistance, give proper insulation, show ruggedness, should be resistant to water, pressure and other factors. Their reliability, durability and ease of installation determine the area of usage.

Applications
These connectors find usage in a wide range of industries like electric substation, underground distribution, shipping, mining, oil and gas, railways, etc.

Summarizing
Screened separable connectors make the terminations touch proof and the insulation covers provide utmost electrical safety. The installation, operational and performance qualification of these accessories must be well documented to ensure compliance with regulations. Onsite training and documentation of the same is also a requirement for safety compliance.